Birding in WyoBraska: A Wildlife Photography Adventure

Travel and Explore WyoBraska

| BIRDING IN WYOBRASKA |

WyoBraska is a unique landscape dotted with landmarks that tell a story of the great migration of the 1800s, the wild west, cowboys, expansion, and exploration. Visiting the North Platte River Valley for the first time you’ll probably find yourself asking, as I did, “How does anything survive in this open wilderness of rolling grass and majestic buttes?” At first glance, the landscape doesn’t convey the wild diversity of life that makes WyoBraska home. You have to delve deeper into the area to begin learning about the species that live here, and there’s only one way to experience it, and that’s by being here. 

By: Hawk Buckman

On my first visit to WyoBraska I, like many visiting for the first time, was awe-struck at the scenery that makes up western Nebraska. Buttes rising from the surrounding landscape of rolling grasslands, and skies that burned with rich colors at sunrise, and sunset, set a pristine backdrop of the old west.

Being a documentary, environmental, and wildlife conservation photographer I immediately found myself wanting to explore the area for wildlife. I was familiar with the Rocky Mountains, and the wildlife I could often find there with relative ease, but not the high plains of Nebraska. Nebraska demands more effort in understanding the environment if you’re to take advantage of it as a photographer.

Animals like elk, moose, deer, fox, and other predators, and grazers, are easy to find in the high country of the Rocky Mountains. Not in Wyobraska. Encountering a small herd of deer tucked away in a ravine near a county (dirt) road is common but, finding large animals like elk is much more difficult. Although, my first visit to the North Platte River Valley did offer two moose that were near an irrigation ditch. Unfortunately, no one is looking for moose in western Nebraska while driving and both animals were killed by semi-trucks. How the moose arrived in WyoBraska is still a mystery as they’re not common in the area.


What WyoBraska lacks in large animals other than horses and cows is made up for by the central, and western, flyways which hundreds of thousands of birds use to migrate north to south, and back again, each year. Most notably is the sandhill crane which uses the Niobrara, and South Platte Rivers, in central Nebraska as a holdover when traveling North to their breeding grounds in the Spring but, the sandhill cranes aren’t the only bird species that make up the diversity of birdlife in Wyobraska.

Western Ospry (Pandion haliaetus)

Every spring beginning in mid to late April western Ospreys arrive in western Nebraska after making the long journey from coastal regions of North and South America where they either begin to build a nest near the North Platte River, or rebuild and dress nesting platforms that they used the previous year.

The osprey differs in several respects from other diurnal birds of prey. Its toes are of equal length, its tarsi are reticulate, and its talons are rounded, rather than grooved. The osprey and owls are the only raptors whose outer toe is reversible, allowing them to grasp their prey with two toes in front and two behind. This is particularly helpful when they grab slippery fish.

The osprey is the second most widely distributed raptor species, after the peregrine falcon, and is one of only six land birds with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is found in temperate and tropical regions of all continents, except Antarctica. In North America it breeds from Alaska and Newfoundland south to the Gulf Coast and Florida, wintering further south from the southern United States through to Argentina.

American and Canadian breeders winter in South America, although some stay in the southernmost U.S. states such as Florida and California. Some ospreys from Florida migrate to South America.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the main threats to osprey populations were egg collectors and hunting of the adults along with other birds of prey, but osprey populations declined drastically in many areas in the 1950s and 1960s; this appeared to be in part due to the toxic effects of insecticides such as DDT on reproduction. The pesticide interfered with the bird’s calcium metabolism which resulted in thin-shelled, easily broken, or infertile eggs. Possibly because of the banning of DDT in many countries in the early 1970s, together with reduced persecution, the osprey, as well as other affected bird of prey species, have made significant recoveries.

Sandhill crane (A. canadensis)

Sandhill cranes landing near Lake Minatare, Minatare, Nebraska – The sandhill crane is a species of large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. The common name of this bird refers to habitat like that at the Platte River, on the edge of Nebraska’s Sandhills on the American Plains.
Sandhill cranes (A. canadensis) landing near Lake Minatare, Minatare, Nebraska – The sandhill crane is a species of large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. The common name of this bird refers to a habitat like that at the Platte River, on the edge of Nebraska’s Sandhills on the American Plains. Photo: © 2020 Hawk Buckman
Click for video.

Named after the Sandhills of Nebraska, the sandhill crane draws thousands of photographers, and wildlife enthusiasts, every year to central Nebraska near the cities of Kearney and North Platte.

What many people don’t know is that the sandhill crane can be found in Wyobraska as they follow the western flyway in survival groups that can be made up of thousands of birds.

Near Scottsbluff, NE sandhill cranes predominately occupy four specific areas during their spring migration. North of Lake Minatare near Winters Creek, in the fields on Lake Minatare Road, and near Little Lake Alice, and the adjacent fields.

Don’t look for sandhill cranes on, or near, the water at Lake Minatare, or on the North Platte River, as they don’t frequent these areas often. The best places to find them are in the fields eating insects and discarded corn kernels from the previous year’s harvest.

( Learn more about sandhill cranes in Wyobraska )

Great blue heron (Ardea herodias)

If you look along the banks of the North Platte River in WyoBraska from mid-April through late July you will, without a doubt, find a Great blue heron fishing along the sand bars, and among the tall grass, of western Nebraska.

The great blue heron is found throughout most of North America, as far north as Alaska and the southern Canadian provinces in the summer. In winter, the range extends south through Florida, Mexico, and the Caribbean to South America.

Birds east of the Rocky Mountains in the northern part of their range are migratory and winter in the coastal areas of the Southern United States, Central America, or northern South America. From the Southern United States southwards, and on the lower Pacific coast, they are year-round residents. However, their hardiness is such that individuals often remain through cold northern winters, as well, so long as fish-bearing waters remain unfrozen (which may be the case only in flowing water such as streams, creeks, and rivers).

This species usually breeds in colonies close to lakes or other wetlands. Adults generally return to the colony site after winter from December from warmer climates in California and Florida to March in colder climates in Canada. Most of the time Great blue heron colonies include only great blue herons, but sometimes other species of herons will nest together in a group called a heronry.

Colorado, eastern Wyoming, and western Nebraska (WyoBraska) are regularly home to large heronries. I’ve personally counted over one hundred birds in a single cottonwood tree near the North Platte River west of Mitchell, Nebraska in Scotts Bluff County, and have witnessed even larger populations in eastern Wyoming near Horse Creek northwest of Lagrange, Wyoming.

The size of these colonies ranges between five and 500 nests per colony and about 125 nests per colony.

American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)

The American avocet is a large wader in the avocet and stilt family, Recurvirostridae. It spends much of its time foraging in shallow water or on mudflats, often sweeping its bill from side to side in water as it seeks its crustacean and insect prey. Photo: © 2018 Hawk Buckman
The American avocet is a large wader in the avocet and stilt family, Recurvirostridae. It spends much of its time foraging in shallow water or on mudflats, often sweeping its bill from side to side in water as it seeks its crustacean and insect prey. Photo: © Hawk Buckman
Click for video.

I’ve frequently seen avocets in western Colorado near the Arapaho Wildlife Refuge but never in western Nebraska until the Spring of 2021 while driving a dirt road running parallel to the North Platte River.

To be honest, I was shocked. I had a hard time wrapping my head around the fact that I was witnessing these amazing birds on the sandbanks of the river. I later learned that my perception of the habits of the avocet was incorrect, and not the bird’s behavior.

More common in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, the American avocet migrates north to the rivers and tributaries of western Nebraska during the breeding season. Wyobraska is inside a notch of their migratory path so finding them in Wyobraska is not uncommon but, seeing a breeding pair is rare. As rare as seeing a wild avocet is it’s still worth the trip if you’re a wildlife photographer or birder. The best time to arrive in WyoBraska in search of American avocets is in mid-April. The video of the Avocets (click the above image) was made on April 30, 2021.

See the ( American avocet range map )

Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)

Spring is a time of the year that I particularly enjoy, especially in the Rocky Mountains and in WyoBraska. Trees beginning to bud, grasses turning green and the return of one of my favorite birds to the area makes me want to jump out of my skin, grab a camera, and head towards the woods.

Early May in WyoBraska signals a change in weather. It’s also when you’ll begin to hear the rambunctious calls of many different species of birds as the temperatures begin to warm and the Western Flyway begins to explode with feathered life.

The tell-tale sign that it’s officially Spring, despite how chilly it may be outside, is the return of the high-pitched, and distinctly unique, song of the eastern kingbird, which sounds very much like a scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), just not as aggressive in tone.

The eastern kingbird loves Wyobraska and they can be found along creek banks resting on overhanging tree limbs, on barbed wire fences, rails, top posts, dead tree limbs, and anything that can be used as a perch to help them spot insects more efficiently.

Eastern kingbirds are tolerant of human presence, but because they’re constantly engaging, and re-engaging, in aerial dogfights with flying insects, they’re difficult to photograph. To make a successful photograph you must watch them in action first observing where they land and perch. Make your way to that area being aware of your background because I can guarantee it will change the moment they take flight. If they’re near a body of water they tend to return to the same perch where they’ll take a short break and start looking for their next victim (see image above).

Use a long lens to get close to the eastern kingbird. A Nikon 800mm f/5.6E AF-S will do the trick nicely and isolate the bird from the background in bokeh. The faster the lens the better the results. Using wide-field action cameras are out of the question unless you can predict where, and for how long, a bird will be in one spot. Personally, clairvoyance is not in my repertoire so my long glass has always been the best option.

Burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia)

Burrowing owl chicks at the mouth of their burrow south of Mitchell, Nebraska July 06, 2020.  Photo: © 2020 Hawk Buckman
Burrowing owl chicks at the mouth of their burrow south of Mitchell, Nebraska July 06, 2020. Photo: © 2020 Hawk Buckman.
Click for video.

Small in size, big in heart, the Burrowing owl only stands about six inches tall and is one of the smallest of owl species; the smallest being the Elf Owl which is slightly larger than a soda can and which makes its home in the southwest of North America.

Each Spring the Burrowing owl can be found inside the ranchlands of Wyobraska predominantly near, or inside, Black-tailed prairie dog colonies. The owls utilize abandoned burrows built by the prairie dogs. Migrating thousands of miles from Central and South America can put one in a bad mood, and in some cases, the owl will evict the prairie dog from their burrow in force if the owl is determined to occupy a specific location in the colony.

Unlike other species of owls the Burrowing owl does most of its hunting in the early morning and mid to late evening avoiding the heat of the day by remaining unseen underground where the burrows are cooler thanks to the ingenuity of the Black-tailed prairie dog who, through thousands of years of evolution, has learned to construct burrows with built-in air-conditioning.

Burrowing owls found in Wyobraska are the western species (A. c. hypugaea) and are most commonly found from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge to southern Wyoming and western Nebraska. In several counties in Colorado and western Nebraska, their population is threatened due to pesticides, poisoning of Black-tailed prairie dogs, and habitat loss. ( Learn more about the Burrowing owl )

Finding Burrowing owls in Wyobraska is relatively easy. You just need to know where to look and when. The birds begin to arrive in Wyobraska in late May where they locate and establish a burrow. Shortly after they begin building their nest from various items found around the burrow such as cow-dung, small sticks, twigs, and grasses. During this time you can see them in prairie dog towns resting on anything that rises from the prairie like rocks, boulders, dead trees, or fence posts. They’ll spend the next four months rearing their young both male and female working together to feed them.

By the end of August, the birds have begun to travel south towards Texas, Mexico, and Central America where they’ll spend the winter months until the following Spring.

You’ll need a set of binoculars to see them at a distance as they’re small and blend into the background easily. If they’re on the ground they’re even harder to see as their camouflage renders them virtually invisible when next to tall grass. They’re easiest to see when sitting at the mouth of their burrows which is normally a vegetation-free raised mound due to the constant reshaping of the burrow entrance from disregarded contents of the burrow.

Burrowing owls tolerate human activity fairly well. The key in photographing them is to find them and develop a plan of action in approaching them. In the photograph of the burrowing owl chicks (above) I spent the better half of the morning in an open prairie dog colony on my hands and knees, staying close to the ground, my camera tightly mounted on a tripod as I moved foot by foot closer to the mouth of the burrow. It took over an hour to travel under 100 yards and I was still more than 30 yards from them when that image was made as I didn’t want to upset the birds.

Use a long lens but don’t count on the lens to do all the work for you. You have to get close to your subject, no matter what the subject is, to capture a memorable image. Especially when photographing the burrowing owl.

Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

A male Red-winged blackbird perched on cattail near the Riverside Discovery Center in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Photo: © 2020 Hawk Buckman.
A male Red-winged blackbird perched on cattail near the Riverside Discovery Center in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Photo: © 2020 Hawk Buckman.
Click for video.

The Red-winged blackbird begins to arrive in Wyobraska from late March to middle April after migrating back to Nebraska from the southern United States and Central America. Each year the birds ring in the sounds of spring from the tops of cattails growing along the banks of sand ponds, creeks, slews, river branches, and tributaries where foliage is dense and abundant.

The Red-winged blackbird has one of the most highly detailed nests of all North American bird species. The females weave the nest with such detail that some nests remain in working condition, with no maintenance, for years after being built.

Male Red-winged Blackbirds are show-offs doing anything and everything they can to get noticed by a female. Sitting on the tops of cattails, branches, and bushes rising from the tall grass of Wyobraska they belt out their conk-la-ree! song all day long.

The females stay in the scrub near, or on, the ground as they hunt through vegetation for food and quietly, methodically weave their remarkable nests.

It’s unlikely that you’ll see a Red-winged blackbird in the winter months in Wyobraska. The birds normally begin to leave western Nebraska in late September when they travel south in huge flocks. A single flock can contain more than a million birds.

Photographing the Red-winged blackbird is easy. You need a quality long lens like a Nikon AF-S Nikkor 200mm-500mm F/5.6 ED VR and your choice of camera. A blind is helpful if you want detailed close-ups. A blind also keeps the animals from panicking due to your presence. I recommend using a blind during all photography excursions for that simple reason.

American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

Pelicans were never on my list of birds to see overflying western Nebraska, northern Colorado, or eastern Wyoming yet, there they were high above me in late March of 2019. Standing in disbelief, watching them soar into the distance was awe-inspiring. When thinking of pelicans you immediately think of oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, the Keys of Florida, and southern California but not western Nebraska, or the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. That is unless you live here. Then it becomes common.

During their yearly migration, the American white pelican stops over for about two months in western Nebraska’s western flyway taking advantage of the many lakes, ponds, and rivers that cross and dot the area.

They arrive in large flocks of upwards of two hundred, or more, birds and settle in, or near, the Lake Minatare area northeast of Scottsbluff, NE where they rest from their long journey flying north to breeding grounds as far away as northern Canada. ( See range map )

A good blind is almost certainly required to document pelicans on the open prairie and scrub of the northern plains. Pelicans do not tolerate the presence of people at a close distance. And since it’s never the intention of a wildlife photographer to disturb wildlife in any way, a blind is the only suitable method to make close-up images of these amazing birds.

You don’t need an expensive blind to get great results. Sometimes a camouflaged sheet hung between two trees will do the trick. Other times a professional blind is required. I recommend using professional gear whenever you can, especially while documenting the American white pelican.

Double-crested cormorant (Nannopterum auritum)

Let’s face it, double-crested cormorants are just cool to look at and photograph. A genetic throwback to the age of dinosaurs if there ever was one. Of course, that’s not true, but in a way, it is true given all birds evolved from late dinosaurs, so it’s fitting that these amazing birds should look like them, at least a little.

Living on the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains you come to expect the unexpected but, nothing could have surprised me more when on my first visit to WyoBraska as a tourist, lost and stumbling my way around the area, I came upon two double-crested cormorants resting on a large log in the middle of the North Platte River in Scotts Bluff County.

On Lake Watson, in Laporte, CO, seeing double-crested cormorants is frequent. They hang out with other shorebirds and bask in the sunlight while drying their feathers. Double-crested cormorant’s feathers are not water-proof so they must dry them by holding them outward after fishing in order to take flight, which is why they prefer to visit larger lakes, far from shore, to prevent predators from taking advantage of their incapacitation. Seeing them in western Nebraska was a bit of a shock for me. Then again, this was my first visit to western Nebraska, and as I later learned western Nebraska is the perfect playground for anyone with a camera who loves photographing birds.

Because Double-crested cormorants enjoy the safety of larger bodies of water, isolated from the shoreline while drying their feathers, you’ll need a long lens, and a set of keen eyes, to make a successful image of these beautiful birds.

Wild double-crested cormorants don’t tolerate the company of humans, ever. It’s for that reason I recommend a long, fast, lens of your choice. I prefer to shoot with my Nikon F5 (film – I’m old school) coupled with an 800mm f/5.6E AF-S with Kodak Porta 400 pushed 1 stop but also use a D850 and an AF-S NIKKOR 200-500mm f/5.6E ED VR lens. The focal length is the important part, not the brand. Every camera is the same thing, does the same thing, and in some cases is manufactured by the same company. The selection of your lenses and cameras should reflect ergonomics, and personal preference: not prestige.

Whatever camera body you select to shoot wildlife with be sure that its shutter speed reaches above 1600. You’ll need that extra shutter speed to capture moving targets like birds, especially the double-crested cormorant. And to be honest, a 1600 shutter speed really isn’t as fast as you would probably need to absolutely freeze the motion of wings in flight.

Double-crested cormorants are easy to find and harder to get close to. Once threatened by the use of DDT, the numbers of these birds have increased markedly in recent years making their presence along river banks, lakes, and ponds a common sight.

Adolescents and juveniles enjoy hanging out in nesting trees. I’ve never seen a nesting tree that didn’t have at least two young birds resting on branches. Utilizing a professional blind will get you closer but you must use extreme stealth if your efforts are to be successful.

Start your excursion by researching the area in which you’ll be stalking. Use binoculars to view the birds and learn their habits before attempting to move a blind into the area. Double-crested cormorants don’t tolerate abrupt change. They’ll leave the area if frequently disturbed.

Combining the majesty and beauty of the double-crested cormorant with the western landscapes of WyoBraska is an adventure of a lifetime that’s sure to render astonishing results.

Wood duck (Aix sponsa)

Needless to say that the Wood duck (Aix sponsa) is one of the most photographed birds in North America due to its stunning beauty and colors. Unique among North American waterfowl wood ducks’ migrate into a small area of the Wyobraska during the breeding season which happens to be the only time you can see them, if you can see them, in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming.

Wood ducks’ breeding habitat includes wooded swamps, shallow lakes, marshes, ponds, and creeks in the eastern United States, the west coast of the United States, some adjacent parts of southern Canada, and the west coast of Mexico.

Only a small portion of WyoBraska sees their yearly return so finding one, seeing one, in western Nebraska is a real treat.

In WyoBraska the wood duck nest in cavities in trees close to water. I’ve seen Wood ducks nest up to a mile away from water in eastern Wyoming near Fort Laramie.

Unlike most other ducks, the wood duck has sharp claws for perching in trees and can, in southern regions, produce two broods in a single season. It’s the only North American duck that can do so

If you want to get close to the wood duck you’d better come prepared because the wood duck has zero tolerance for the presence of anything it’s unfamiliar with including other ducks and waterfowl. I recommend using a professional birding blind. Be ready to sit for long durations without being able to move, or make a single sound. ( Learn more about the Wood duck )

Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Hoping to see bald eagles on the shores of the Pacific Ocean is a realistic expectation but, while driving through the rugged country of western Nebraska the last thing on your mind, or you expect to see, is a bald eagle.

I, like many other people, didn’t give consideration to the bald eagle being on the high plains of North America but the Wyobraska area is unique in that it’s close to southeastern Wyoming, and 100 miles east of northern Colorado’s Front Range, where bald eagles are permeant residents year-round.

These eagles make short migrations into Wyobraska each year in search of available food during the winter months when ice forms on lakes, and ponds, but where some water remains liquid. It’s here that they catch fish, nest, and rear their young.

Convocations of bald eagles can be seen in tall cottonwood trees along the banks of the North Platte River from North Platte, NE to Torrington, WY, and everywhere in between beginning in November which is when the Canda geese begin to arrive in Wyobraska in mass. On the ice of large lakes, the eagles search for wounded, old, or sick Canada geese which they take with astonishing frequency. The eagles will remain in the area until April, sometimes into May. Seeing a bald eagle in the spring isn’t uncommon but they are often mistaken for golden eagles when in fact they’re first-year bald eagles whose coloration hasn’t changed.

Learn how to tell the difference between a bald and golden eagle

Each year birders and photographers take expeditions to other parts of the world to participate in capturing wild bald eagles at workshops and on wildlife adventure tours. Great Alaska Adventures is one such company providing tours and they have a great reputation. I’m biased because the owners of the company are dear friends. Not to take away from their business, I want to point out that you don’t have to travel to the other side of the planet to find bald eagles in the wild. They’re right here in WyoBraska and are easy enough to find if you know where and when to look.

The first place to look for bald eagles in WyoBraska is near the North Platte River especially near bends in the river where the water widens the banks and the depth of the water is about 5 feet, or less, deep. It’s here that fish prefer to swim. Unfortunately for the fish, it makes easy work of catching them for the eagles.

The rule for looking for eagles is simple. Find the tallest tree on the river banks and sit down and watch. Like humans preferring a specific chair, brand, or product based on personal taste and comfort, eagles have their own special trees that they prefer to sit in or hang out around. Once you discover these locations you can bet you’ll see the birds with repeated frequency.

Bald eagles have zero tolerance for humans at close range. You’ll need a blind if you plan on staying for a while because once a bald eagle sees you you’ll have its complete attention for about five minutes, probably much less until it makes a hasty retreat to another part of the river.

Lake Minatare is another location you can find bald eagles in mass in late winter and early spring. The lake is closed to all public access from October 15 to January 15 annually due to the location being a bald eagle, and other birds, habitat for breeding.

In the spring, as the lake ice begins to thaw, eagles dot the ice from one side of the lake to the other. I’ve counted as many as nineteen birds standing on the ice at one time. Normally they’re standing around the dead corpse of their dinner as an unfortunate Canada goose found its demise on the ice.

Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)

The Swainson’s hawk is the second-longest migrant of any North American raptor, the first being the arctic nesting Peregrine falcon.

Each year Swainson’s Hawks migrate over 7,000 miles from their winter nesting grounds in Central and South America north to lands stretching from Texas to Alberta Canada with each migration lasting sometimes more than two months. In that two months, the hawks find their way back to western Nebraska where they take advantage of the Acrididae grasshopper population as one of their primary foods.

Seeing a Swainson’s hawk on the prairie of the Northern Plains of America isn’t rare. They’re here but are most often misidentified as a red-tailed or cooper’s hawk. Finding one to make a photograph of is almost impossible. Using your vehicle as a blind is the best option. Simply driving around until you find one renders the best results unless you know the location of a nest. if you do know the location of a nest keep your distance and use a long lens and professional blind.

Making the trip to Wyobraska to capture wildlife images is a challenge in itself but not as big a challenge as making the trip to another part of the world for the same wildlife you can find here. While visiting the Wyobraska area you’ll have the added benefit of seeing and experiencing the old west. The history found here has been documented in thousands of books and publications and with a guide, or some advice from a local resident, you can experience that history while taking in the abundant wildlife that’s found here throughout the year.

The WyoBraska region is unique to the world. Its climate, buttes, canyons, valleys, and natural resources are the very thing that makes up the west. It’s the beginning of the Rocky Mountains and the end of the Great Plains. It’s an experience no one forgets and everyone who’s visited here can hardly wait to return to it.


| REFERENCES

The information in this article has been compiled from:

NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy – Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International – CABS, World Wildlife Fund – US, and Environment Canada – WILDSPACE.

Personal experiences and observations of Getty Images® Photographer Hawk Buckman.

Hawk Buckman

Hawk is a documentary, environmental, and wildlife conservation photographer. A Getty Images® photographer and past contributor to the National Geographic Society®, The World Wildlife Fund®, BBC America®, the Travel Channel®, and Green Peace International® while remaining a freelance photojournalist for many national and international publications.

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